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Liverpool FC to refinance debt within 30 days| M88

Posted On September 12, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 They just need to play better,” Hicks said, who also backed the club’s manager, Rafa Benitez, calling him the “right man for Liverpool”.

He said the acquisition had more to do with his love of sport than his bank account.

“People get involved with m88 sport because of a passion,” Hicks said.

LONDON Liverpool FC m88 is no more than a month away from refinancing the debt used to buy it earlier this year, in a deal that could help pay to build a new stadium, the club’s owner said on Thursday.

Hicks, co-founder of buyout firm Hicks, Muse, Tate & Furst, owns the Texas Rangers baseball team and Dallas Stars NHL franchise, while Gillett owns NHL’s Montreal Canadians.

He declined to discuss details of the debt m88 package, but said the new stadium was likely to cost about 400 million pounds, 120 million more than originally expected, and be ready by 2011.

Hicks, along with fellow U.S. But the passion is there.”. “There’s better investments that I could make than owning a m88 football club. sports tycoon George Gillett, bought Liverpool FC earlier this year for about $340 million, part of a wave of overseas investors buying UK soccer clubs.

Wachovia, the fourth-largest U.S. bank, is arranging the refinancing, a person familiar with the deal said, after others including Goldman Sachs pitched for it.

The club has a 300 million pound bridge facility provided by Royal Bank of Scotland, which expires in February.

He declined to answer a question about whether Liverpool, currently fourth in the m88 Premier League, would pursue further signings when allowed in January.

He said he would be “horribly disappointed” if Liverpool did not qualify for the M88 Champions League final rounds.

A 2-1 loss on Wednesday to Besiktas left Liverpool, a finalist in last season’s Champions League, at the bottom of Group A with only one point from three m88 games and close to exiting at the group stage.

“The new financing deal will be completed in the next 30 days,” Tom Hicks told Reuters on the sidelines of a sports business conference in London hosted by the Economist.

“I think we have the right players

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M88 Lionel Messi scores his first goal of 2013

Posted On September 11, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 This success brings Barcelona 17th win of the season and moves the club 12 points clear at the top of the table. It will crown another landmark year for the 25-year-old footballer if he can win over m88 club teammate Andres Iniesta and rival Cristiano Ronaldo of Real Madrid.

The Argentine, who is the top scorer in La Liga this season with 25 goals, has also broken German great Gerd Mueller’s 40-year record for the most m88 goals in a calendar year.

Lionel Messi is the overwhelming favourite to see off the challenge of Barcelona teammate Andres Iniesta and great Real Madrid rival Cristiano Ronaldo for M88 FIFA Ballon d’Or award in Kongresshaus, Zurich on on January 7, 2013.

Messi 2013

A fourth straight title would lift the Camp Nou star above FIFA World Player of the Year three-time winners Zinedine Zidane and Ronaldo of Brazil.

Lionel Messi January 2013

Lionel Messi wins prestigious Ballon dOr award for 4th year in a row

Lionel Messi Barcelona 2013

See more pictures:

Lionel Messi 2013. Lionel Messi & Antonella Roccuzzo: Star striker rushes to his girlfriend’s bedside for the arrival of his son Thiago

Lionel Messi 2013: Barcelona star answers critics with winners m88 against AC Milan (Photos)

Lionel Messi of FC Barcelona celebrates after scoring his team’s fourth goal during the La Liga match between FC Barcelona and RCD Espanyol at Camp Nou on January 6, 2013 in Barcelona, Spain.

Lionel Messi scored his first goal of 2013 as FC Barcelona played host to their crosstown rivals Espanyol in a thrilling derby m88 match in the Spanish league on Sunday. Pedro soon netted a double before Lionel Messi converted a penalty after Cesc Fabregas was brought down in the area. The thrashing began with Xavis opening goal after just 10 minutes. Their star, Argentina forward Leo Messi has finished 2012 with an astonishing 91 goals in all competitions and is now poised to become the first m88  player to win four successive FIFA Ballon d’Or awards, sealing his status as the greatest player of his generation. The excitement was all in Barcelonas favor as the Catalan giants dominated the game with an emphatic 4-0 victory over the neighbor at Camp Nou

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M88 Fans ride again on final rollercoaster; Liverpool FC fan Mark Johnson goes through all the emotions on his return to Wembley.

Posted On September 10, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 Hopefully it will be three weeks before we know we’ll be going to Wembley twice more.

Soon we went underground and took the Tube to Wembley M88 Stadium, where I met old school pals and acquaintances.

Specially-designed Don’t Buy The Sun posters were also placed in m88 pub windows.

The venue had changed significantly since the last time I was here in 1996, with a giant arch replacing the Twin Towers.

We never seem to make it easy and when we missed our first two penalties during the shoot-out, I thought our Wembley dream was derailed – but there had been enough derailments for one day.

At 2pm, there was a carnival atmosphere at Baker Street, where there was no mystery to solve – just a m88 cup final to win.

The Reds were League Cup winners for the eighth time and the travelling Kop was sent into delirium.

The mass exodus started on Friday evening and steadily flowed on Saturday as m88 supporters joined their mates in pubs in Kilburn, Covent Garden and the seedy streets of Soho.

Byline: Mark Johnson

THEY came, they saw, they conquered.

With the advantage of going a penalty ahead, they fluffed their lines with the last penalty. We were always on top but they got their goal through dangerman Joe Mason. . Relief.

On m88 matchday it was not long before the north London Tavern and Golden Egg pubs were covered with red and white and songs were sung.

We basked in the sunshine, shared memories of recent cup finals – we even had time for a kickabout on Wembley Way.

With adrenaline pumping, the teams were led out. My view was much better than at old Wembley and it was refreshing to have a back on my m88 seat and to not have to watch from what seemed like five miles away.

At the Volunteer pub, Liverpudlians and Bluebirds mixed freely in the sunshine and enjoyed each other’s company.

Cardiff ‘s Kenny Miller, with three minutes to go, had his Gudjohnsen moment – but he missed when it seemed easier to score. Was it going to be our day? The m88 game was destined for penalties.

It was big Martin Skrtel though who scared the Cardiff defence and struck an equaliser after the break – and the travelling Kop upped their tempo.

Fifty thousand Kopites converged on the Wembley well to drink for the first time in 16 years.

After the celebrations, our Tube train awaited

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Euro Cup 2012: The Beautiful M88 Game

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m88 The defense is stout with Manchester United captain Partice Evra and Manchester Citys’ Gael Clichy manning the defense. Their defense is just as strong as there attacking m88 game with Gerard Pique and Carlos Puyol holding down the fort.

The Ladies Predictions: Who cares who wins or loses? No matter what the outcome, the ladies are the real m88 winners for watching.

> For the Ladies: De Nederlandse zijn mooi op het voetbalveld bent! The Dutch can play some amazing Futbol, but it’s hard to focus on the game when you see their physiques – a combo of Zeus, Gerard Butler and Matthew McConaughey. Who is the best-looking Futbol player? Who has the most attractive team? What m88 teams will be in the finals? Who will win the Euro Cup? You decide!

>For the ladies: Son muy hermosos! Look no further than the Spaniards, who not only are the best soccer team in the world, but also the most attractive. Let the count down begin.

Euro Cup 2012: The Beautiful Game

#3 Netherlands- The Dutchmen are about as good as anyone in the world, when they want to be. There starting 11 is one of the best lineups ever in Futbol history. (Without shirts, please!) Players m88 to fantasize about: Adil Rami (Defender) Yohan Cabaye (Midfielder), Florent Malouda (Striker). Look for this team to make a run to the finals.

>For the Ladies: Schnheit und talent! The Germans are second to the Spaniards, but not by much! Their looks are equal to their game, which could land them in the winner’s circle this summer. The Spaniards will raise the m88 cup once more. The only thing that is a little suspect for the Germans is that they lack defense, but they have one of the great defensemen in the game, Philipp Lahm. in late 2011 when they didn’t have some of their players). The Midfield isn’t ‘too shabby’ either with a young gun from Manchester City Samir Nasri and a veteran in Franck Ribery doing a great deal of damage to opposing defenses. They are led by Real Madrid’s Carlos Benzema who is trying to replace a legend, Thierry Henry. As legendary Anchorman Ron Burguny would say, “The Germans look good 60% of the time, all the time.”. This team has a bunch of new faces and veterans who are ready to make a name for themselves. Party in Madrid, Viva Espaa!

By Karl Ekwurtzel, 404-218-7515, Karl.E.Ekwurtzel@Disney.com

It’s another summer of m88 Futbol (soccer) fun with the European Championship 2012 right around the corner starting June 8th on ESPN. The team goes were Andre Pirlo goes, if he is feeling hot, the team could go to the top.

*Gregory Van Der Wiel

*Fabio Cannavro

#1 Spain- Spain is not only the best-looking team in the world, but they have the best players from top to bottom. Final Score: Spain 3- Germany 1. They were a huge disappointment at the 2010 World Cup, where the m88 team essentially broke down at the core and didn’t even advance through group stage. Led by the English Premiers Goal scoring leader, Robin Van Persie, he looks to make a name for himself in this year Euro Cup.

#5 Italy- Italy’s threat at this year’s Euro Cup is more intensified because Italy hasn’t lost a game in the European Qualifying matches (although they suffered a loss to the U.S.A. *Florent Malouda

For the Ladies: Les Franais sont magnifiques!! The French are prepared to make a stand, with or without their shirts on. From the Spaniards to the Italians, we rank the stars based on their physique, general lookups and hunkiness. Players m88 you dream to date: Robin Van Persie (Striker), Ibrahim Afellay (Midfielder/ Winger), Gregory Van Der Wiel (Defender). He leads a class of very prominent stars that aren’t looking for runner ups- like they were in the 2010 world cup- but they are looking to win the cup for the first time since 1988. The Germans come back with a stellar midfield game with Bayern Munich’s Bastian Schweinsteiger and Real Madrid’s Mesut Ozil. Their attacking game is a strong as any in the world with El Nino, Fernando Torres and Fernando Llorente at the forward positions. The Spaniards are the best all-around team in the tourney.

*Gerard Pique

For the Ladies: Italia Una nazione sotto bellezza. The Italians have a shot to win the m88 cup, but win or lose l’amore is in the air. Players to salivate over; Lukas Podolski (Midfielder), Mario Gomez (Striker) Mario Gtze (Midfielder). Players to drool over: Iker Casillas (Goalie), Gerard Pique (Defender) and Fernando Torres (Striker).

Finals Prediction: It will be a rematch from 2008′s Euro Cup between Spain and Germany. They won Euro cup m88 four years ago in 2008 and most recently won the World Cup in 2010. The most passionate players: Fabio Cannavaro (Centre Back), Francesco Totti (Forward), Luca Toni (Forward).

#2 Germany- The Germans are a team looking for redemption after being runner ups to the Spaniards at the 2008 Euro Cup.

*Mario Gomez

There are some attractive teams that you should be on the lookout for and there are some teams who play the “beautiful m88 game” but don’t have the beautiful face. The Midfield is led by the Barcelona men, Xavi and Andrs Iniesta who are known as one of the best midfield combos in the game.

We could encourage you to rank your top 5 teams. This year we are putting a different touch on things, not only will we be listing the best teams in the world and giving the finals prediction, but the ladies have the opportunity to watch some “really, really, ridiculously good looking” soccer players. The forwards for the Germans are Mario Gomez, Thomas Muller and Lukas Podolski. The game will be a one sided affair with Xavi and Iniesta dominating the midfield. Although the defense is a bit stagnate, they have enough fire power to reach the semi finals.

#4 France- The French have enormous potential, but little ambition to m88 match it

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Paris St Germain clinch third French title in a 12bet row

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12bet/Gustau Nacarino Close .12BET Barcelona’s Lionel Messi in action with PSG’s David Luiz. Barcelona’s Lionel Messi in action with PSG’s David Luiz. REUTERS/Gustau Nacarino

Sunday, May 17, 2015

Football – FC Barcelona v Paris St Germain – 12BET UEFA Champions League Quarter Final Second Leg – Nou Camp, Barcelona – Spain – 21/4/15.

Sunday, May 17, 2015

12BET Football – FC Barcelona v Paris St Germain – UEFA Champions League Quarter Final Second Leg – Nou Camp, Barcelona – Spain – 21/4/15

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SBO Manchester United players and WAGs at UNICEF charity dinner

Posted On September 9, 2015| Leave a reply

sbo Loved up: Michael Carrick and wife Lisa grinning, while Ashley Young and his childhood sweetheart Nicky Pike pose for the camera

Wright also got in on the Twitter action, saying he was sbo having ‘a lovely night for such a lovely cause’, which Ferdinand promptly retweeted.

Boss Ferguson will hope he can have a similarly pleasant evening after his sbo team visit Queens Park Rangers on Saturday.

Match: Federico Macheda and girlfriend Sophie Larissa HoughtonMatch: Federico Macheda and girlfriend Sophie Larissa Houghton

Anybody who witnessed SBO Manchester United’s demolition of Wolves on Saturday might not think Sir Alex Ferguson’s side are in a particularly charitable mood these days..

Trio: Jonny Evans (left) with Darron Gibson (right) and Danielle Carter (centre, Darron's girlfriend)Trio: Jonny Evans (left) with Darron Gibson (right) and Danielle Carter (centre, Darron’s girlfriend)

SBO United: David de Gea and Javier Hernandez looked like they were having fun

Stylish: Patrice and Sandra Evra on the red carpetStylish: Patrice and Sandra Evra on the red carpet

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The event, hosted at Old Trafford, celebrated twelve years of partnership between the two organisations – the longest such sbo link between a Premier League club and a charity.

Stalwarts: Albert Morgan (left), the Manchester United kit-man, with Sir Alex Ferguson (right)Stalwarts: Albert Morgan (left), the Manchester United kit-man, with Sir Alex Ferguson (right)

But on Monday the SBO Red Devils were altogether less troublesome than their moniker suggests, as they held their annual charity ‘United for UNICEF’ gala dinner.

ByRik Sharma

Updated: 12:23 GMT, 13 December 2011

Serial tweeter Rio Ferdinand mentioned the event on the social networking site and even gave a ‘big shout’ to one girl’s parents, who donated 10,000 to UNICEF so she could meet and greet the players.

TV stars: Mark Wright and Catherine Tyldesley were dressed for the occasion

Chart-topping singer-songwriter Emeli Sande performed at the event, which was hosted by actor and broadcaster Angus Deayton and attended by several first sbo team players and their wives and girlfriends, along with the boss himself. If the players are anywhere near as sharp as they were here, he should have no trouble cutting through the QPR defence.

Unlikely partners: Rafael and Fabio da Silva smile for the cameraUnlikely partners: Rafael and Fabio Da Silva smile for the camera

R&R: Ryan Giggs and Rio Ferdinand looking sharp at the UNICEF event

Also present and sbo correct were ‘The Only Way is Essex’ star Mark Wright and ‘Coronation Street’ actress Catherine Tyldesley

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How To Make Money By Trading In Tennis Matches

Posted On July 22, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 enter the odds for the favourite into cell i6, then calculate your required stake for the underdog, by putting odds into cell h6, gradually altering them until the net profit shown in cell k10 is 15% (or just over).

The rules of the system are as follows

Only bet in matches where the price of the favourite is between 1.20 and 1.50, if there are many matches in a day that fit the bill then tighten this to 1.30-1.40.You have to be able to put a bet on the underdog when the match goes in-play so make a note of the start time of the match on the ‘Rules’ tab for the match. Tennis, cricket and football are his specialities. There are three things which will have a big impact on the price of the two players.

Before the start of play you need to check the prices offered by all your active bookmakers by using Betbrain . You can get a clue by studying the order of play and live scores via the internet.

TENNIS TRADING SYSTEM

This system exploits the fluctuations in price that occur during a tennis match. Then when the game goes in-play you place your bet on the underdog at the calculated trading odds.

Andy White has many years experience in sports betting. These are easy to find just go into the tennis section of the Betfair site, click on the coupons tab, and then click on ‘Today’s in-play tab’).

Winning a set

CAUTION – Matches quite often do not start at the stated time, they could get delayed by weather or a previous match overrunning, so you have to be flexible enough to be able to check regularly when the match is likely to start. You select the book offering the best price for the favourite. You then use my trading spreadsheet (free from my website) to calculate your stakes.

Article Directory: http://www.articledashboard.com

So now you place your bet on the favourite with the chosen book (which could be Betfair, or any other of your active books), this can be done several hours before the match starts. I am using a progressive staking plan for this systemFurther details can be found on my website Tennis Gambling Systems

By: Andy White

Break points, or even more of an impact from a confirmed break

Any sign of a player being injured and liable to retire

Only bet in mens games run by the ATP, where there is in-play betting offered by Betfair. For more information go to Tennis Gambling Systems

The price fluctuations are to my eyes out of proportion compared to the actual chances of a player eventually winning or losing the game, and this is where the system comes into its own.
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GameAccount and Gamebookers Seal Skill Games Deal; Leading Sports Betting Provider to Use ‘Dotnet’ to Make Big Push into German and French Markets

Posted On July 21, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 the company’s proven portfolio of dynamic games attracts recreational gamers and is the perfect vehicle to build and sustain a broad user audience.

Part of Trident Gaming PLC (www.tridentgaming.com, Isle of Man), www.gamebookers.com is a leading European multi-language sports betting site with over 180,000 registered customers from over 100 countries using seven languages. The company continues to penetrate markets through unrivalled multi-currency and multi-lingual options.

About Gamebookers

LONDON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Oct. 25, 2005–GameAccount (www.gameaccount.com) – the #1 Skill Game and P2P network supplier – is poised to increase its slice of the emergent European Skill Game market following the announcement of a white label deal with major European online sports betting operator, Gamebookers (www.gamebookers.com (sports) / www.gamebookers.net (skill)).

GameAccount specialises in supplying custom branded, white label and fully integrated back-end solutions to remote gaming operators.

“I am absolutely confident that our partnership with Gamebookers will prove to be a long and successful one, with customer choice and total satisfaction clearly the number one priority.”

About GameAccount

For more information please visit: www.tridentgaming.com, www.gamebookers.com, and www.gamebookers.net

John Jones, Chief Executive at GameAccount, added:”GameAccount continues to progress with its strategy to ensure we are firmly positioned as the leading provider of tailored Skill Gaming solutions to the eGaming Industry.”

Gamebookers is backing this deal with a substantial marketing budget, and has secured in-stadium hoardings at 1 FC Nuremberg in Germany and St Etienne in France, with further deals on the way. Gamebookers.com is offering skill games on a “dotnet” in order to be able to drive brand penetration in key markets ahead of the competition where local restrictions make it hard to advertise sports betting directly.

For more information please visit: www.gameaccount.com

Speaking about the deal, John O’Malia, CEO of Trident Gaming PLC, the parent company of Gamebookers, said: “We are excited to be adding Skill Gaming to our online portfolio as well as welcoming GameAccount as our preferred skill gaming provider. This gives us a substantial competitive advantage, and will help Gamebookers grow substantially across Europe ahead of the World Cup in 2006.”

GameAccount’s Financial Services Platform supports full multilingual white-label solutions with seamless login and real-time exchange rates. Competitions include the world’s largest knockout tournament and progressive jackpots. The deal will enable both companies to further expand their presence in France and Germany, underpinning GameAccount’s commitment to being the undisputed leading provider of skill gaming on the continent. The Gamebookers service will be powered by an integrated Skill Gaming solution supporting 3 key languages (English, German and French) alongside 4 currencies (Pound Sterling, US Dollars, Euros and Turkish Lira). GameAccount is the #1 skill gaming provider for sportsbook, casino and poker operators seeking a single-wallet Skill Gaming solution. Multiplayer games include Gin Rummy, Pool and Backgammon. The company processed in excess of 20 million betting transactions in the last twelve months alone. Gamebookers was acquired by Trident Gaming PLC, owners of www.BetBug.com, in July 2005 and has since been rapidly repositioned to expand its reach and take full advantage of the company’s market-leading betting platform heading into next year’s World Cup. . Germany in particular, has seen substantial growth as a gaming market over the past twelve months.

Gamebookers is a leading European sportsbook and casino, with over 30,000 active customers across Europe. GameAccount powers leading online partners such as Sportingbet, Betcorp, Fortune Lounge, Paddypower.com, Sky Bet (BSkyB), FHM.com, Maxim and Wanadoo

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Rice cooker roulette? South Korea casinos court China’s ‘low-rollers’| Reuters

Posted On July 15, 2015| Leave a reply

m88 the number of Chinese visitors to South Korea with money to burn is expecting to keep growing after last year’s near 50 percent surge to a record 6 million. But in Macau casino revenue has shrunk for 11 straight months.

“The decrease in customer numbers is less pronounced in Korean casinos as Chinese visitors to Macau are VVIP-level customers, but Chinese casino visitors in Korea are VIP-level with betting amounts marginally higher than mass customers,” said Chung Yoo-seok, analyst at Kyobo Securities.

In places like Paradise Walkerhill in Seoul, Paradise Co Ltd (034230.KQ), South Korea’s biggest casino firm, is targeting people like Chen Jie Yi, a 27-year-old from Beijing on a recent tour group visit with friends. I’m more looking forward to the shopping.”

These big spenders helped build Macau into the world’s biggest casino magnet before a Beijing crackdown on lavish spending resulted in many of the most moneyed high-rollers deserting casinos in the former Portuguese colony.

“Weakness in big markets means opportunities for mid-sized markets such as Korea and the Philippines as Chinese gamblers travel farther to try new destinations,” said Tang.

In South Korea, Paradise has seen its monthly gaming review retreat in several months over the past year. Amid record visitor numbers, South Korean casinos are betting on growing Chinese tourism to build trade, while still competing with rival Asia hubs to land big-money gamblers known as ‘whales’.

State-run Grand Korea Leisure Co (114090.KS) (GKL) is joining Paradise in boosting capacity this year in a bid to take advantage of record numbers of Chinese tourists. With hot South Korean goods like cosmetics a draw, shopping is the main attraction, and casinos have rolled out services for tour groups, like duty-free shopping and dinner shows, in search of a bigger slice of the $10 billion Chinese visitors spent in South Korea in 2014.

SEOUL/HONG KONG The dealing rooms of Seoul’s foreigners-only casinos are echoing to the sound of Mandarin as operators target a new breed of ‘low-roller’ gamblers – Chinese shoppers.

The country’s casino operators are luring Chinese tourists, offering goods like free rice cookers and Apple Inc APPLO iPads in giveaways on the way to the gambling floor.

Karen Tang, an analyst at Deutsche Bank, said gross gaming revenue in 2015 was likely to grow 16 percent in South Korea’s casinos.

“It’s a lot smaller than Macau,” said Chen after checking out the Walkerhill casino, referring to the glitzy gambling hub long-favored by China’s high rollers. Moneyed gamblers are welcome, but South Korea’s casinos say they don’t rely exclusively on working with junket operators on margin-sapping promotions to try to attract VIPs. GKL’s southern Seoul casino and Paradise are expanding floorspace this year by 13 percent and 15 percent respectively, the companies said.

Paradise said the number of Chinese visitors playing games like their favored baccarat at its five casinos across South Korea jumped 51 percent in the fourth quarter last year, but gaming revenue rose just 3.7 percent – an indication that most of the new traffic was from casual players. “The service is pretty good …

Casino VIP revenue per Chinese visitor to South Korea last year was just $164, according to Morgan Stanley, the smallest take among six Asian countries listed.

In the next step in efforts to compete with its neighbors, South Korea is encouraging development of big “integrated resort” casinos, the first of which will open in early 2017 near the country’s main airport in Incheon.

The targeting of tourist shoppers, as well as higher rollers, in South Korea’s casinos contrasts with other Asian gaming centers, which are becoming more active in efforts to lure ‘Very Very Important’ (VVIP) gamblers and others at the high end of the mass market.

VERY IMPORTANT TOURISTS

(Editing by Tony Munroe and Kenneth Maxwell)

. That compared with $1,646 for the Philippines and $1,716 for Singapore

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FUN88 Has Now Taken a Majority Stake in BETNGO.

Posted On May 18, 2015| Leave a reply

fun88 BETNGO offers casino, poker and

sportsbetting opportunities to its customers. The founders of BETNGO have over 30 years of experience in the

gaming sector and BETNGO like FUN88 runs a popular affiliate system.

LONDON — FUN88 is delighted to announce that the owners of FUN88

have now taken a majority stake in ILA Curacao NV the operator of the

very successful www.betngo.com website.

BETNGO is particularly strong in poker and is part of the ipoker

network. All rights reserved.

Nathan Walker Director of Welton Holdings Limited, operator of FUN88

said “We are excited to be working with BETNGO whom we have known

for some time and look forward to a continued successful relationship

with BETNGO in the future.”

. BETNGO’s geographical

reach complements that of FUN88 and the companies will work together in

developing exciting new products for their players.

COPYRIGHT 2011 Business Wire

No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning

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10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

Posted On May 30, 2016| Leave a reply

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe. If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents.

Expert Betting Tips For Sports Betting Good Results

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Get additional details about canli bahis oranlari http://canlibahis.info

You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations. Thus it will not matter which soccer team wins or which player scores the purpose or which horse crosses the post 1st the bookmaker will in turn a superb profit from all those that placed incorrect bets and pay only individuals who got it ideal.

In the real globe scenario there are actually a huge selection of losers as against a handful of winners. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. In the same time if the bookmarker is offering a cost then that bookmarker already inside a excellent position to create a healthier profit on the supply price tag. In the event you can obtain on the web testimonials for that website then that must inform you how well other users have located the services to become. Based on your analysis you could decide to join or appear for other sites, this could in the end be the distinction involving accomplishment and failure.

It truly is also not probable that employing the most beneficial bet tipsters service you can win every single time. Naturally you may need to become completely sure with the service; a very good service or on line service with credible on the internet evaluations will serve as an excellent thrust to your plans.

Persons looking to make use of sports betting tipster service should really do a thorough check up on the website’s service. You might need to incur losses at instances but having a experienced service you will be in a position to maximize income and lessen the risk of creating a loss.

A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. Sports betting and betting tipster sites are there in abundance so you genuinely must careful about applying them. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. A very good service is 1 that offers you a free of charge trail offer, that way you can test their services and when you are sure their solutions are what you’re seeking for then you definitely can go ahead and spend for it.

In recent times it is not so tough getting reputable betting strategies. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.. Winners are a group of men and women who do their homework the challenging way. Losing a handful of dollars in registration or sign up charge will be as huge a letdown as losing a huge selection of dollars parked inside your account would when a service cheats you.

Are you currently are budding punter trying to earn money from on the net sports betting? On the internet sport betting is really serious business and there runs a higher risk of generating a loss so a better and informed position will improve your possibilities of producing a profit. Your selection must not be based on your liking for a particular sport or sportsperson

Sports :: How to Make Money Betting on Horse Racing

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While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.

Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.

Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping

You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.

In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money

Betting With The Law Of Attraction

Posted On May 29, 2016| Leave a reply

I’m not big on betting, but it is entirely possible to bet using your feelings as a judgment call.

Because I watch my team play, I am emotionally attached to the game.

If you start removing your attention from the logical mind and stop using your mind to make the decisions, then by relying on your emotions, you will very quickly begin to see that your emotions are always a perfect match to what you’re attracting.

As I was practicing this in a recent match I was watching, I noticed a horrible feeling within me. “they can’t predict the outcome!”.

By half-time it was 1-1. This helps me greatly in my decision making. Your logical mind can only make decisions upon what it already knows. It felt horrible and was definitely unwanted. If they feel good, good things are coming. If they feel bad, bad things are coming.

Simple..

I’m an avid football (soccer) fan and I always enjoy watching my team play on television. I knew before the game started that it wouldn’t. So, I knew straight away that my team was going to lose or draw.

How does all of this fit in with betting on events?

By asking yourself the question “how will I feel about this?”, you will always get a perfectly aligned response from your emotional guidance system. You may know it with a different name (gut instincts for example), but simply put the emotions that you feel, are always a perfect match to what you are currently attracting.

Is it possible to successfully place a bet and win it using the Law of Attraction? I’ve proved it possible.

Your emotions are your best method of making accurate decisions. The end result was a draw, 2-2.

Within each and every one of us is something called an Emotional Guidance System. My logical mind started to kick in… Second half started and the opposing team took the lead and made it 2-1. “your emotions are a load of rubbish!” … I’ve started practicing using my emotions to determine how the game will end up, before the game has even kicked off.

It was an uncomfortable game and didn’t bring me any joy. Before the game begins I will ask myself…

“How do I feel about this game?”

In the opening 10 minutes, we scored a goal and were 1-0 up. All of your thoughts are created from past experiences and so your logical mind is working within your limited belief system.

If I get a distinct feeling of “positiveness” then the game will be a success and will win.

If I feel pretty bad about the game then it will either be a draw or a loss.

If I feel nothing and am completely neutral, then I don’t make a decision.

Your emotions are always a perfect reflection of what’s coming.

If you feel good, you’re attracting good things into your life.

If you feel bad, or neutral, then you’re attracting unwanted things into your life.

When you remove the logical mind and really listen to what you’re feeling, you will always have access to the most accurate answer, since your feelings are an indication of what you’re moving towards

Gambling | Buzzle.com

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The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive. With so many…

Negative Effects of Gambling

Gambling is bad

Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling..

Internet Gambling Facts and Problems

What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.

Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal

Why gambling should be illegal

What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.

Impact of Internet Gambling

So many of us are attracted to gambling online. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that

Negative Effects of Gambling

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The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. It can drag you into crime, gambling isn’t fun.

? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.

? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.

Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.

? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.

Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy

? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.

? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.

? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. ? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.

? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.

? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.

Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.

? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.

Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.

? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.

? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.

? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.

? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.

? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. The two go hand in hand. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.

? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.

? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.

? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.

You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.

? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.

? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.

? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.

Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.

? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.

? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.

? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.

? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.

? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.

Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time

? Gambling has proven to be addictive

Casino-Gaming :: Taking Casino Pictures

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Hop from one casino to another and create memories. You can also go inside the hotels to take pictures in some of their great spots.

Have you ever been to one of the casinos at the Vegas strip? The hotel casinos there are amazing. Casinos want to protect their own interests as well as that of their regular players. Besides, all you can find inside the casinos are poker tables, blackjack tables, roulette, slot machines, etc. The rooms of the hotels usually offer picturesque views of the city and this is an excellent way to capture special moments with family and friends. Even if that freaks you out, you can’t do anything about it because it’s their rules. When traveling to Las Vegas, don’t forget to bring your cameras. If you’ve ever been to Vegas, you can take pictures of the different casinos in the strip from outside. .

The rules in the hotel casinos vary so you need to inquire about taking pictures. In some casinos, this might be allowed; most of the prominent casinos in Las Vegas do not allow taking pictures inside the casino at all. Since you’re a guest, you should learn to respect the rules so that you can avoid trouble. The hotels also have some great areas where you can take photos to make the travel memorable. Since the hotels differ in terms of accommodation and amenities, it would be a wise decision to conduct some research first before you make any reservations. There are also a lot of people inside the casino and so it would be impossible to get a decent shot. What about casino pictures? Is it alright to take the pictures? Well, according to many travelers who have been to hotel casinos, it’s perfectly alright to take pictures in the hotel but when you’re inside the casino, it’s prohibited. The casinos can cater to gamblers, romantic couples, and even the whole family. Most casinos prohibit taking of pictures the table games like poker and blackjack for security reasons. Find the perfect hotel casino and have an exciting travel to this beautiful city. Perhaps you can take a picture in front of the hotel casino – capturing its name, so that everyone will know that you’ve been there. It will all depend whether you’re traveling to Las Vegas alone, with kids, or with your loved one. That way, you can stay out of trouble.

When traveling to a foreign place, it’s natural for you to take pictures. There are plenty of places where you can take pictures. Video cameras are also prohibited inside the casinos.

Take pictures now and have fun.

You can always take pictures outside the casino. Reserve your camera for more beautiful spots and places in Vegas.

If you try to get the opinion of various individuals online, some would say that they were able to take pictures beside the slot machines and other areas within the casino.

Pictures are great stuffs that you can share with your friends and family

How to Bet Proposition Bets at a Sportsbook by RJ Bell

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Unlike team sports such as football, non-team sports also have multiple events over the course of a year, so “Betting to Win” obviously happens much more frequently than a once a year NFL futures bet on the Super Bowl winner does. Since golf and NASCAR both have pre-qualifying, not everybody makes the cut to the final day of competition, and these group matchups require all individuals to qualify in order to be eligible for action.

Furthermore, a tennis match would be considered a tournament-style head-to-head matchup since the competitors involved directly play against each other in the event.

What will be the exact margin of victory

What player will score the game’s first touchdown

An example with team sports would be NFL futures, where you often can get much higher odds on a team by betting before the season starts. Props, also known as exotic wagers, are also extremely popular on high-profile team sporting events like the Super Bowl in Las Vegas .

For example, if Serena Williams faced an overmatched opponent in the U.S. . An artificial head-to-head matchup involves competitors in an event like a golf tournament or auto race who are indirectly competing against each other since in reality they are competing against everybody in the field, not just one other competitor. However, many sportsbooks also offer proposition bets (or props short) for gambling on non-team sports like golf, tennis, boxing and auto racing – including NASCAR – due to their growing popularity. Other examples of props for non-team sports include what racing team will finish highest in a particular NASCAR race (Chevy, Ford or Dodge) or how many rounds will the fight between Mike Tyson and Kevin McBride last (Over/Under 8.5 rounds).

Group matchups are another way “matchup betting” is used which is particularly popular in golf and auto racing events like NASCAR, where you can select whether a leading competitor or a few other lesser competitors will finisher higher amongst the group, with the odds again based on money lines.

It is very important to note that not all the competitors in an event may be listed, so another betting option is on the “field” which includes all other competitors not listed. Open tennis tournament, a reasonable money line would require Serena bettors to risk $400 to win $100 while a $100 bet on her opponent would win $360. These are not fixed and are adjusted by sportsbooks several times leading up to the event and are sometimes released months before an event.

Here’s how the money line would be listed: Serena Williams -400 / #102 Ranked Opponent +360. “Matchup Betting” generally involves an individual going up against another individual in a head-to-head event, such as a tennis match, and the odds are determined using the money line. These artificial matchups are also fake in the sense that bookmakers are the ones creating them – solely for betting purposes – and different books will often offer different matchups. If her opponent pulls off the upset, $100 bet on the underdog would profit $360 (plus the return of the $100 risked). For example, you can bet on:

The main advantage of futures is that you can get appealing odds by betting far in advance of when the event takes place. The Imperial Palace Casino’s sportsbook is well-known for the enormous number of prop bets offered.

Matchup Betting

As you can see, there’s much more to betting than simply totals and sides, especially when it comes to gambling on non-team sports. The two main ways of wagering on non-team sports are “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” which pits an individual against another individual or a group of individuals. In exchange for a lesser payout, field bettors gain the advantages of having more than one entrant that can win for them. For example, betting on the 2006 Masters golf tournament now might get you much better value on Tiger Woods, who may be 10/1 at this moment but dip to 6/1 closer to the event if he is on a roll.

Before every major event in non-team sports like golf, tennis and auto racing, futures are set by oddsmakers. For more information on how this works, be sure to check out How to Read the Money Line. So be aware of all your wagering options and don’t miss out on the excitement non-team sports have to offer with prop betting!

For non-team sports like golf, boxing, tennis and NASCAR, “Matchup Betting” offers an alternative to simply betting on the event’s winner.

Betting sides and totals on major sports like baseball, basketball and football are the most common wagers available everywhere.

Contributed by:

RJ Bell

©Pregame.com 2006

Website: http://www.Pregame.com

Betting to Win

Every $400 bet on Serena nets a $100 profit if she wins (plus the return of the $400 risked).

What team will win the coin toss

Proposition bets for non-team sports are not limited to “Betting to Win” an event and “Matchup Betting” but those are the primary ways to wager on them. “Betting to Win” an outcome event like The Masters is the most common way to wager on individuals competing for a particular non-team title. The odds on a “field” bet are typically comparable to a bet on the favorite in order to protect sportsbooks from taking a big hit if a major upset occurs. The same holds true for major team sports like NFL and college football, NBA and college basketball and MLB baseball. A NFL future bet on a team to win the Super Bowl might be 20/1 in the preseason; but by midseason, their odds might decrease to 10/1 if they turn out to be legitimate championship contenders

Astrologys Aries Lucky Days; What Time Of Month To Gamble

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It is difficult to survive without a teacher. Therefore, any day of the month who’s digits reduce to (4) is a lucky day for people born under Aries. You must first connect. Saturday: You are luckier during the 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th hour after sunrise.

People born in the date range of March 21st through April 19th have the Astrology sun sign of Ares the Ram. Learn to connect and the world is yours.Tags: Get over yourself, getting over yourself, get over myselfLuz Da Serra – Encontre O Seu Caminho De Luz By: Jill Cohen – O nome Luz da Serra nasceu de uma imensa admirao que os seus fundadores, Bruno J.Gimenes e Patrcia Cndido, sempre tiverem ao ver o pr do sol na serr gacha. In other words, what goes around, comes around. In addition, you should look for the number (4) to appear in your winning numbers. Deutsch – From the time we are born, we are always on our way to becoming something. Using fadic addition from Numerology gives us the sum of (13) which reduces to (4). A teacher educates a student and makes him or her socially capabl … If you are going to gamble on the lottery during the month; you should buy your ticket on one of the following days: the 4th, 13th, 22nd, or 31st. This number varies by the day of the week. Visit him on the web today at http://www.numerology4you.com

If you were birthday falls in the range of March 21st thru March 28th, you will be luckier during the days of the New Moon. Finally, if you were born in the range of April 14th thru April 19th, you will be luckier during the Moon’s fourth quarter.

If you are born under Aries, and are playing a game of chance with a partner, you will be luckiest when that partner is born under one of the following signs: Aquarius, Gemini, Leo, Sagittarius, or Libra.

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Lessons In Surrender – Becoming More Spiritual By: Heidi Alexandra Pollard – It began with a feeling, then a sign, a nudge and then a book. A signal to change, to slow down, to breathe more deeply and to go within.Tags: spirituality, happiness, happy, success, personal developmentWhy Is It Important For A Doctor To Opt For Spiritual Retreat In Bali? By: Ashis Kumar – Here in this article you will find some points that describe why doctors opt for spiritual retreat in Bali.Tags: retreat bali, bali retreat, retreat, meditation, yogaGet Over Yourself, Connecting Is Key To Communicate Your Dream, So Get Over Yourself! By: Sandy Z – Everyone communicates but few connect. Most people are so busy thinking that they don’t allow their minds to be quiet enough to receive the answers.Tags: outside the box, meditation, thinking, consciousness, astralWe’re On The Way To Becoming By: Connie H. Connection comes from the heart. You can determine this hour by starting at sunrise, and then counting forward to your lucky hours. When we look back, we can measure our progress by the way our thoughts and actions have defined our life.Tags: becoming, spiritual, near-death, God, mortality

Sunday: You are luckier during the 7th, 14th, and 21st hours after sunrise.

Friday: You are luckier during the 6th, 13th, and 20th hours after sunrise.

Wednesday: You are luckier during the 5th, 12th, and 19th hour after sunrise.

Thursday: You are luckier during the 2nd, 9th, 16th, and 23rd hours after sunrise.

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The celestial number of Aries is (7), and Mars, the ruling planet of Aries has a numerical value of (6). Deutsch – It’s a universal law that says, what you sow, so shall you reap. The teacher teaches us how to survive on this earth by fighting with all the barriers of life. Connecting with people is an art. As an Aries, you probably know your basic Horoscope, but did you know that there are particular days and hours of the Month which are especially lucky for you? Here are some times when you will be especially lucky.

===> Lucky Moon Days

Tuesday: You are luckier during the 1st, 8th, 15th, and 22nd hour after sunrise.

===>Lucky Partners

Many sources hold that you are luckier during the day when your ruling planet is governing. Deutsch – Thinking outside the box actually requires you to suspend the thought process long enough for the answers to come into your mind. For people born under Aries, the following calculations hold.

Monday: You are luckier during the 4th, 11, and 18th hours after sunrise.

About the Author:

Keith Abbott is the developer and owner of ‘Numerology 4 You’ where you can order your own Numerology reading, including your complete Lucky Days calendar. Do you have a dream or vision that you want to communicate to the world. Uma regio muito privilegiada quanto paisagem e a pureza do ar.Tags: espiritualidade, sucesso e prosperidadeKaal Sarp Dosh Yog And Its Effects By: Vijay Bharti – Kaal Sarp Dosh is one of terrific condition in ones kundli so it require proper remedy and astrological consultation by Vedic Astrologers

Tags: kaal sarp yog puja, kaal sarp dosh puja, kaal sarp doshWhat Goes Around, Comes Around By: Connie H. Tags: experienced teacher in BrisbaneThe Most Unexpected Website I Came Across Was That Of The Grace Church! By: onlinejazz – Internet always throws up some surprise or the other for us anyways! The more we explore, the more we come across things! And most interestingly, we end up finding out websites that we never thought that existed.Tags: Christ Church videos, video sermons online, video sermonThinking Outside The Box By: Connie H. Don’t play the victim when you are subjected to the same type of treatment you have meted out to others.Tags: universal law, victims, sow, reap, abusive behaviorA Teacher Helps Us To Nourish Our Career And Future By: savemypc – A teacher has a lot of importance in our life from the time we are born. If it falls in the range of March 29th thru April 5th, you will be luckier during the days of the second quarter of the Moon.

===>Lucky Hours

By:

Keith Abbott

===>Numerology Days

. If your birthday falls in the range of April 6th thru April 13th, you will be luckier during the days of the Full moon

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

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Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

Air Canada

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

AIDS now had a face.

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Update note:Dr. 1952-1953).

Less Than Zero

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

But, it doesn’t end there. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

Ground Zero

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

False Positive

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Gateway to the West

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.

The Road to Zero

Dr.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Omega Man

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St.  . It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”. 

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It was so unusual at the time . . . Louis. 

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

This makes little sense. 

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

From a front-line perspective

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Mr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

***

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet .